ENDNOTES

CHAPTER 1: CONFRONTING THE CRISIS

  1. This section draws heavily on UNAIDS/WHO. “AIDS Epidemic Update.” December 2003 plus UNAIDS/WHO estimates for 2004.
    .
  2. Centers for Disease Control. 2003. “Fact Sheet: HIV/AIDS Among US Women: Minority and Young Women at Continuing Risk.” Atlanta, GA.
    www.cdc.gov/hiv/pubs/facts/women.htm.
    .
  3. International Community of Women Living with HIV/AIDS (ICW). www.icw.org.
    .
  4. For more information, see
    www.un.org/ga/aids/coverage/.
    .
  5. For more information, see
    www.un.org/millenniumgoals.

 

CHAPTER 2: PREVENTION

  1. Global HIV Prevention Working Group.
    2003. Access to HIV Prevention: Closing the Gap. www.gatesfoundation.org/GlobalHealth and www.kff.org/hivaids/200305-index.cfm.
    .
  2. UNICEF. 2002. Young People and
    HIV/AIDS: Opportunity in Crisis. New York. p. 26.
    .
  3. Voluntary Services Overseas (VSO). 2003. Gendering AIDS: Women, Men,Empowerment, Mobilisation. London. p. 11.
    www.vso.org.uk/advocacy/gendering_aids.pdf.
    .
  4. UNFPA-supported project, unpublished report.
    .
  5. Osava, Mario. 2004. “AIDS Spreading Six Times Faster Among Teenage Girls.” Rio de Janeiro: Inter Press Service. 11 March.
    .
  6. VSO. 2003. op. cit. p. 10.
    .
  7. The Alan Guttmacher Institute. 2003. “A, B and C in Uganda: Roles of Abstinence, Monogamy and Condom Use in HIV Decline.” New York and Washington, D.C. www.guttmacher.org.
    .
  8. Kaleeba, Noerine. 2004. “Women and AIDS: Challenges and hopes for affected communities.” Speech at UN Headquarters. 8 March. www.tasouganda.org/index.php.
    .
  9. Glynn, J. R. et al. 2003. “HIV Risk in Relation to Marriage in Areas With High Prevalence of HIV Infection.” Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (JAIDS). 33(4): 526-535; Glynn, J. R. et al. 2001. “Why do young women have a much higher prevalence of HIV than young men? A study in Kisumu, Kenya and Ndola, Zambia,” JAIDS. 15(suppl. 4): S51-S60.
    .
  10. PAHO. “Fact Sheet: Gender and HIV/AIDS.” www.paho.org/english/hdp/hdw/GenderandHIVFactSheetI.pdf.
    .
  11. Russell, Sabin. 2004. “Inequality called key in AIDS gender gap: UN official urges empowerment of world’s women.” San Francisco Chronicle. 10 March.
    .
  12. UNIFEM. 2001. “Gender Dimensions ofHIV/AIDS in India.” In Summaries of Community-based Research on the Gender Dimensions of HIV/AIDS. New York.
    .
  13. UNICEF. 2002. op. cit. p. 18.
    .
  14. Global HIV Prevention Working Group. 2003. op. cit. p. 2.
    .
  15. Stover, J. et al. 2002. “Can we reverse the HIV/AIDS pandemic with an expanded response?” The Lancet. July 6. Vol. 360.
    .
  16. IPPF/UNFPA. 2004. Integrating HIV Voluntary Counselling and Testing Services into Reproductive Health Settings: Stepwise Guidelines for Programme Planners, Managers and Service Providers.
    www.unfpa.org/publications/index.
    .
  17. United Nations General Assembly Special Session (UNGASS) on HIV/AIDS. 2001. “Fact sheet: Global Crisis – Global Action: Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV.”
    www.un.org/ga/aids/ungassfactsheets/pdf/fsmotherchild_en.pdf.
    .
  18. USAID. HIV/AIDS Fact Sheet, 2003.
    www.usaid.gov/our_work/global_health/aids/News/aidsfaq.html.-
    .
  19. WHO. 2001. “Effect of Breastfeeding on Mortality among HIV-Infected Women.”
    www.who.int/child-adolescent-health/New_Publications/NUTRITION/Effect_of_Breastfeeding_on_Mortality.htm
    .
  20. IPPF/UNFPA. 2004. op. cit.
    .
  21. UNFPA. 2003. Gheskio presentation.
    Regional Workshop on HIV/AIDS in Latin America and the Caribbean. Mexico City. October 20-24.
    .
  22. United Nations Secretary-General’s Task Force on Women, Girls and HIV/AIDS in Southern Africa. 2004. Facing the Future Together. New York. p. 44.
    .
  23. Davis, K. R. and S. C. Weller. 1999. “The effectiveness of condoms in reducing heterosexual transmission of HIV.” Family Planning Perspectives. Nov-Dec. 31(6): 272-9.
    .
  24. Global HIV Prevention Working Group.
    2003. op. cit. p. 2.
    .
  25. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. 2003. “World Contraceptive Use.” Wall chart.
    .
  26. Female Health Company (Brazil). www.femalehealth.com/Brazil.htm.
    .
  27. Family Health International. “Female Condom Acceptability and Sustained Use.” FHI Research Briefs on the Female Condom. No. 4. www.fhi.org/en/RH/Pubs/Briefs/fcbriefs/index.htm.
    .
  28. Bala Nath, Madhu. 2000. How to Empower Women to Negotiate Safe Sex: A Resource Guide for NGOs. New Delhi: Har-Anand. pp. 28-29.
    .
  29. ICW. 2004. “Voices and Choices.”
    Unpublished PowerPoint Presentation. www.icw.org/.
    .
  30. Pharmaco-Economics Working Group of the Rockefeller Foundation Initiative. 2002. “The Economics of Microbicide Development: A Case for Investment.” www.rockfound.org/Documents/488/rep3_economics.pdf.

 

CHAPTER 3: TREATMENT

  1. Based on UNAIDS/WHO estimates for 2004, as of 21 June 2004.
    .
  2. Equinet/Oxfam. 2004. “Principles, Issues and Options for Strengthening Health Systems for Treatment Access and Equitable Responses to HIV and AIDS in Southern Africa: Summary of evidence and issues from a programme of research and a regional meeting.” Discussion Paper Number 15. Harare, Zimbabwe.
    www.equinetafrica.org/pubs.php.
    .
  3. IRIN/PlusNews. 2004. “Zambia: The Ultimate Sacrifice.” www.plusnews.org/webspecials/womensday/zam040305.asp.
    .
  4. Ibid.
    .
  5. Africa Rights. 2004. Rwanda: Broken Bodies, Torn Spirits: Living with Genocide, Rape and HIV/AIDS. Kigali.
    .
  6. Fleischman, Janet. 2004. Breaking the Cycle: Ensuring Equitable Access to HIV Treatment for Women and Girls. Washington, D.C.: Center for Strategic and International Studies. p.11.
    .
  7. Ibid.
    .
  8. Ministry of Health, Government of Brazil.
    2001. Boletim Epidemiológico AIDS. www.aids.gov.br/final/biblioteca/bol_set_2001/tab1.htm.
    .
  9. Bant, Astrid. UNIFEM regional adviser for HIV/AIDS, Brazil. Interview. 3 Feb. 2004.
    .
  10. The Global Coalition on Women and AIDS. 2004. “Media Backgrounder: AIDS treatment – a focus on ‘3 by 5’.”
    www.unaids.org/en/events/coalition_women_and_aids.asp.
    .
  11. IRIN/PlusNews. 2004.
    .
  12. Fleischman. 2004. op. cit.
    .
  13. WHO. Post Exposure Prophylaxis.
    www.who.int/hiv/topics/prophylaxis/en/; Aidsmap. 2004. “Treatment to prevent infection—PEP.” www.aidsmap.com/ treatments/ixdata/english/082ab2c6-5bcc- 4ddd-ac7e-8e56c570228a.htm.
    .
  14. Global HIV Prevention Working Group.
    2003. op. cit. p. 6.
    .
  15. Attawell, Kathy and Jackie Mundy. 2003.
    “Provisions of ART in resource limited settings: a review of experience up to August 2003.” DFID Health Systems Resource Centre. WHO/DFID. www.who.int/3by5/publications/documents/dfid/en/; Center for Health and Gender Equity (CHANGE). 2004. “AIDS, and ARV Therapies: Ensuring that Women Gain Equitable Access to Drugs within US Funded Treatment Initiatives.” Takoma Park, MD.
    www.genderhealth.org.
    .
  16. See www.spym.org.
    .
  17. Askew, Ian and Marge Berer. 2003. “The Contribution of Sexual and Reproductive Health Services to the Fight against HIV/AIDS: A Review.” Reproductive Health Matters. 11(22): 67.
    .
  18. See www.lovelife.org.za/corporate/index.html.
    .
  19. Lewis, Stephen. 2004. “Women, AIDS and Apathy.” Speech at Microbicides 2004 Conference. London. 30 March.

 

CHAPTER 4: CAREGIVING

  1. Global Coalition on Women and AIDS.
    2004. “Media Backgrounder: Care, Women and AIDS.” www.unaids.org/en/ events/coalition_women_and_aids.asp.
    .
  2. Nakiyingi, J. S. et al. 2003. “Child survival in relation to mother’s HIV infection and survival: Evidence from a Ugandan cohort study.” AIDS. 17(12): 1827-1834.
    .
  3. Lewis, Stephen and James T. Morris. 2003. “Lesotho, Malawi, Zambia and Zimbabwe.” UN Mission Report.
    .
  4. Booysen, Frederick and Max O. Bachmann. 2003. “Health and economic impact of HIV/AIDS on South African households: A cohort study.” Public Health. 3 (1): 14.
    .
  5. Secretary-General’s Task Force on Women, Girls and HIV/AIDS in Southern Africa. 2004. op. cit. p. 38.
    .
  6. UNICEF. 2003. Africa’s Orphaned Generations. New York. www.unicef.org.
    .
  7. Global Coalition on Women and AIDS. 2004. “Care, Women and AIDS.” op. cit.
    .
  8. HelpAge International and the International HIV/AIDS Alliance. 2003. Forgotten Families: Older People as Carers of Orphans and Vulnerable Children. p. 13.
    .
  9. Secretary-General’s Task Force on Women, Girls and HIV/AIDS in Southern Africa. 2004. op. cit. p. 38.
    .
  10. Farmer, Paul. 2002. “Introducing ARVs in Resource-poor Settings.” Plenary Speech. World AIDS Conference. Barcelona. 11 July.
    .
  11. Blinkhoff, Petri et al. 1999. Under the Mupundu Tree: Volunteers in home care for people with HIV/AIDS and TB in Zambia’s Copperbelt. London: ActionAid. p. 21.
    .
  12. Ibid. p. 18.
    .
  13. See www.ghanaweb.com/GhanaHomePage/NewsArchive.
    .
  14. Welbourn, Alice. 1995. Stepping Stones: A Training Package on HIV/AIDS, Gender Issues, Communication and Relationship Skills. London: ActionAid.
    .
  15. For programme information see Women’s Global Health Imperative. www.wghi.org/.
    .
  16. See www.uweso.org.
    .
  17. See www.engenderhealth.org/ia/wwm/pdf/ map-sa-interview.pdf.

 

CHAPTER 5: EDUCATION

  1. Global Campaign for Education. 2004.
    Learning to Survive: How Education for All would save millions of young people from HIV/AIDS. p. 2.
    .
  2. Ibid.
    .
  3. Vandermoortele, J. and E. Delamonica. 2000. “Education ‘vaccine’ against HIV/AIDS.” Current Issues in Education.(1).
    .
  4. UNICEF. 2003. “Child Labour and School Attendance in Sub-Saharan Africa: Empirical evidence from UNICEF’s Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS).” Division of Policy and Planning, Strategic Information Section (draft internal publication). New York. p. 17.
    .
  5. Ibid. p. 26.
    .
  6. World Bank. 2002. Education and HIV/AIDS: A Window of Hope. Washington, D.C. p. 7.
    .
  7. Over, M. 1998. “The effects of societal variables on urban rates of HIV infection in developing countries: An exploratory analysis.” In Ainsworth, M., L. Fransen and M. Over, editors. Confronting AIDS: Evidence from the Developing World. Brussels and Washington, D.C.: European Commission and World Bank.
    .
  8. Herz, B. and G. Sperling. 2004. What Works in Girls’ Education. Washington, D.C.: Center for Foreign Relations.
    .
  9. Millennium Project. 2004. Task Force 3 Interim Report on Gender Equality.
    www.unmillenniumproject.org/documents/tf3genderinterim.pdf.
    .
  10. Ibid. p. 26.
    .
  11. Population Reference Bureau. 2000. “The World’s Youth 2000.” Washington, D.C. Cited in UNFPA. 2003. State of World Population 2003. New York.
    .
  12. Hogle, J. A. et al. 2002. “What Happened in Uganda: Declining HIV Prevalence, Behavior Change and the National Response.” Project Lessons Learned Case Study. Washington, D.C.: USAID.
    .
  13. See www.straight-talk.or.ug/.
    .
  14. For example: The Botusa Project – a collaboration of the Botswana Government and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. www.cdc.gov/nchstp/od/gap/countries/botswana.htm.
    .
  15. World Bank. 2002. op. cit. Washington, D.C.
    .
  16. Bruns, B., A. Mingat and R. Rakotomalala.
    2003. Achieving Universal Primary Education by 2015: A Chance for Every Child. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.
    .
  17. Filmer, D. and L. Pritchett. 1999.
    “Educational enrollment and attainment in India: Household wealth, gender, village, and state effects.” Journal of Educational Planning and Administration. July.
    .
  18. Global Coalition on Women and AIDS. 2004. “Media Backgrounder: AIDS and Girls’ Education.” www.unaids.org/en/ events/coalition_women_and_aids.asp.
    .
  19. UNICEF/UNAIDS. 2003. “UNICEF, UNAIDS applaud milestone in coordinated global response to children orphaned due to AIDS.” Joint press release. Geneva. 21 October. www.unicef.org/media/ media_15081.html.
    .
  20. UNICEF. 2004. The State of the World’s Children 2004: Girls, Education and Development. New York. p. 50.
    .
  21. Alleyne, Sir George. 2004. “Stigma and Social Ostracism against Girls and Women: The Economic Aspects of HIV/AIDS in the Caribbean.” Speech at UN Headquarters. 8 March.
    .
  22. Halcon, L. T. et al. 2000. A Portrait of Adolescent Health in the Caribbean. Minneapolis, MN.: University of Minnesota and PAHO.
    .
  23. Cited in Millennium Project. Task Force 3 Interim Report on Gender Equality. op. cit. p. 65.
    .
  24. Omar, R. and A. DeWaal. 1994. “Crimes Without Punishment: Sexual harassment and violence against female students in schools and universities in Africa.” Discussion Paper No. 4. London: Africa Rights.
    .
  25. Mensch, B. S. and C. B. Lloyd. 1997.
    “Gender Differences in the Schooling Experiences of Adolescents in Low Income Countries: The Case of Kenya.” Policy Research Division Working Paper. No. 95. New York: The Population Council.
    .
  26. UNICEF. 2004. op. cit. p. 35.

 

CHAPTER 6: VIOLENCE

  1. WHO. 2002. World Report on Violence and Health. Geneva; Heise, L., M. Ellsberg and M. Gottemoeller. 1999. Ending Violence Against Women. Population Reports. Series I, No. 11. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health. p. 1.
    .
  2. Amnesty International. 2004. ‘Marked for Death’: Rape survivors living with HIV/AIDS in Rwanda. web.amnesty.org/library/index/engafr470072004.
    .
  3. UNFPA. “Fast Facts on Gender Issues: Gender-based Violence.”
    www.unfpa.org/gender/facts.htm.
    .
  4. UNAIDS. 2003. Progress Report on the Global Response to the HIV/AIDS Epidemic. www.unaids.org/ungass/en/global/ungass00_en.htm.
    .
  5. Dunkle, Kristin L. et al. 2004. “Genderbased violence, relationship power, and risk of HIV infection in women attending antenatal clinics in South Africa.” The Lancet. 363(9419): 1415.
    .
  6. Maman, S. et al. 2002. “HIV-positive women report more lifetime partner violence: Findings from a voluntary counseling and testing clinic in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.” American Journal of Public Health. 92(8): 1331-7.
    .
  7. WHO. 2002. op. cit. p. 152.
    .
  8. Cited in ibid. p. 149; Jewkes, R. et al. 2001. “Relationship dynamics and adolescent pregnancy in South Africa.” Social Science and Medicine. 5: 733-744; Matasha, E. et al. 1998. “Sexual and reproductive health among primary and secondary school pupils in Mawaanza, Tanzania: Need for intervention.” AIDS Care. 10:571-582; Buga, G. et al. 1996.
    “Sexual behaviour, contraceptive practice and reproductive health among adolescents in rural Transkei.” South African Medical Journal. 86:523-527.
    .
  9. US Department of State. 2003. Trafficking in Human Persons Report. Washington, D.C. p. 7.
    .
  10. “Women as Chattel: The Emerging Global Market in Trafficking,” Gender Matters Quarterly. February 1999.
    .
  11. Human Rights Watch. 2002. Suffering in Silence: The Links Between Human Rights Abuses and HIV Transmission to Girls in Zambia. www.hrw.org/reports/2003/zambia/.
    .
  12. Human Rights Watch. 2002. The War Within the War: Sexual Violence Against Women and Girls in Eastern Congo. p. 2.
    www.hrw.org/reports/2002/drc/.
    .
  13. UNAIDS. 2003. op.cit. p. 5.
    .
  14. See www.femnet.org.ke/.
    .
  15. See www.engenderhealth.org/ ia/wwm/index.html.
    .
  16. See www.promundo.org.br/english/.
    .
  17. Aimakhu, C.O. et al. 2004. “Current causes and management of violence against women in Nigeria.” Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 24(1): 58-63
    .
  18. Fleischman. 2004. op. cit. p.13.
    .
  19. Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC) Task Force on HIV/AIDS in Emergency Settings. 2003. Guidelines for HIV/AIDS Interventions in Emergency Settings. New York: United Nations.
    .
  20. See www.avega.org.rw

 

CHAPTER 7: WOMEN’S RIGHTS

  1. See www.unfpa.org/adolescents/gender.htm.
    .
  2. See www.tostan.org/.
    .
  3. UNICEF. 2004. op. cit. p. 20.
    .
  4. Wax, Emily. 2003. “Kenyan Women Reject Sex ‘Cleanser’: Traditional Requirement for Widows is Blamed for Aiding the Spread of HIV-AIDS.” The Washington Post. 18 August.
    .
  5. Global Coalition on Women and AIDS. 2004. “Media Backgrounder: AIDS and Female Property/Inheritance Rights.”
    www.unaids.org/en/events/coalition_women_and_aids.asp.
    .
  6. Ntozi, James P. M. 1997. “Widowhood, remarriage and migration during the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Uganda.” Health Transition Review 7 (Suppl.): 125-144.
    .
  7. Human Rights Watch. “Fact Sheet: HIV/AIDS and Women’s Property Rights in Africa.” www.hrw.org/campaigns/women/property/aidsfactsheet.htm.
    .
  8. VSO. 2003. op. cit.
    .
  9. Ibid. p. 33.
    .
  10. www.planetwire.org/details/4221.
    .
  11. Saibi, Zainab. 2003. “The Lack of Women’s Property Inheritance Rights in Africa.” Testimony before the Congressional Human Rights Caucus. 10 April.