Family planning

Overview

Access to safe, voluntary family planning is a human right. Family planning is central to gender equality and women’s empowerment, and it is a key factor in reducing poverty. Yet in developing regions, some 214 million women who want to avoid pregnancy are not using safe and effective family planning methods, for reasons ranging from lack of access to information or services to lack of support from their partners or communities. This threatens their ability to build a better future for themselves, their families and their communities.

UNFPA works to support family planning by: ensuring a steady, reliable supply of quality contraceptives; strengthening national health systems; advocating for policies supportive of family planning; and gathering data to support this work. UNFPA also provides global leadership in increasing access to family planning, by convening partners – including governments – to develop evidence and policies, and by offering programmatic, technical and financial assistance to developing countries.

What is family planning?

Family planning is the information, means and methods that allow individuals to decide if and when to have children. This includes a wide range of contraceptives – including pills, implants, intrauterine devices, surgical procedures that limit fertility, and barrier methods such as condoms – as well as non-invasive methods such as the calendar method and abstinence. Family planning also includes information about how to become pregnant when it is desirable, as well as treatment of infertility.

UNFPA supports many aspects of voluntary family planning, including procuring contraceptives, training health professionals to accurately and sensitively counsel individuals about their family planning options, and promoting comprehensive sexuality education in schools. UNFPA never promotes abortion as a form of family planning.

Family planning saves lives

Contraceptives prevent unintended pregnancies, reduce the number of abortions, and lower the incidence of death and disability related to complications of pregnancy and childbirth. If all women in developing regions with an unmet need for contraceptives were able to use modern methods, an additional 35 million abortions and 76,000 maternal deaths would be prevented every year.

Women’s and adolescents’ right to contraceptive information and services is grounded in basic human rights. The Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) recognized “the right of men and women to be informed and to have access to safe, effective, affordable and acceptable methods of family planning of their choice.” This agreement lays the foundation for much of UNFPA’s work.

Additionally, male and female condoms, when used correctly and consistently, provide dual protection against both unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV.

Increasing access to modern contraception among adolescent girls is a crucial starting point for improving their long-term health. It is also essential for improving maternal and newborn health: Around the world, complications from pregnancy and childbirth the leading killer of adolescent girls (ages 15-19). Their babies also face a higher risk of dying than the babies of older women. Yet adolescents face enormous barriers to accessing reproductive health information and services.

UNFPA works to improve access to reproductive health services, including for marginalized young people. In Malawi, for example, health workers are receiving training on providing sensitive and accurate information and services tailored to adolescents. 

Family planning empowers women

Access to contraceptive information is central to achieving gender equality. When women and couples are empowered to plan whether and when to have children, women are better enabled to complete their education; women’s autonomy within their households is increased; and their earning power is improved. This strengthens their economic security and well-being and that of their families.

Cumulatively, these benefits contribute to poverty reduction and development.

Family planning brings economic benefits

There are clear economic benefits to investing in family planning. For every additional dollar that is invested in contraception, the cost of pregnancy-related care will be reduced by $2.22. In terms of socioeconomic benefits, achieving universal access to quality sexual and reproductive health services is estimated to yield returns of $120 for every dollar invested.

Family planning can also help countries realize a ‘demographic dividend’, a boost in economic productivity that occurs when there are growing numbers of people in the workforce and falling numbers of dependents.

Contraceptives provided by UNFPA in 2016:
-Reached 20,900,000 people
-Averted 11,700,000 unintended pregnancies
-Averted 3,680,000 unsafe abortions
-Averted 29,000 maternal deaths
-Saved $716,000,000 in health-care costs
Through the UNFPA Supplies Programme and the organization's regular family planning programmes combined, UNFPA provided nearly 7 million female condoms and nearly 268 million male condoms.

The regions with the greatest needs for modern contraception – sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia – would see the greatest health and welfare gains from meeting unmet need.

Overcoming barriers to family planning

Common reasons why women do not use contraceptives include logistical problems, such as difficulty travelling to health facilities or supplies running out at health clinics. Reasons also include social barriers, such as opposition by partners, families or communities. Lack of knowledge also plays a role, with many women not understanding that they are able to becoming pregnant, not knowing what contraceptive methods are available, or having incorrect perceptions about the health risks of modern methods.

There are a number of challenges to improving access to family planning information and services. Efforts to increase access must be sensitive to cultural and national contexts, and must consider economic, geographic and age disparities within countries.

Poorer women and those in rural areas often have less access to family planning services. Certain groups – including adolescents, unmarried people, the urban poor, rural populations, sex workers and people living with HIV – also face a variety of barriers to family planning. This can lead to higher rates of unintended pregnancy, increased risk of HIV and other STIs, limited choice of contraceptive methods, and higher levels of unmet need for family planning. Particular attention must be paid to promoting their reproductive rights, access to family planning, and other sexual and reproductive health services.

UNFPA’s work

UNFPA works at every level to improve access to family planning and empower individual choices, partnering with governments, NGOs, community-service organizations, faith-based organizations, youth groups and the private sector. With its partners, UNFPA helps to strengthen community-based and youth-friendly reproductive health services, and to provide these services during humanitarian crises.

And through its UNFPA Supplies programme, UNFPA works with partners and governments to ensure access to a reliable supply of contraceptives, condoms, and medicines and equipment for family planning, STI prevention and maternal health services. UNFPA also works to integrate family planning services into primary health care, so that women and girls are able to access information and contraceptives no matter what health facility they visit. 

UNFPA is a key partner in the Family Planning 2020 (FP2020) global partnership, which aims to reach an additional 120 million women and girls with contraceptive services in 69 of the poorest countries in the world by 2020. To meet this goal, and achieve the Sustainable Development Goals, UNFPA is focusing on four key areas:

  1. Investment in adolescents and youth
  2. Effective and efficient supply chain management
  3. Sustainable financing to ensure provision of family planning supplies and services
  4. Quality of care  in family planning services

Updated 20 July 2017.

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Women aged 15-49, any method, per cent, 2016

Women aged 15-49, any method, per cent, 2016
Women aged 15-49, modern method, per cent, 2016
Higher Lower

Selected videos

See more